- Geographic Information Science - The University of Auckland
- GIScience Teaching and Learning Perspectives
- Special Issue: Geospatial Technologies in Teacher Education
- About the Author
When the contents of the above-mentioned studies are examined, it is seen that some of these studies were carried out with students and preservice teachers. However, since the use of GIS in educational environments is new in Turkey, it is important to determine the current situation in relation to the practice of GIS, reveal the difficulties encountered in the process, propose possible solutions to problems and emphasise the need for the use of GIS in educational environments with study findings.
This study was carried out with the teachers who were at every stage of educational process by considering all these mentioned reasons. Method In this study, the phenomenological design, one of the qualitative research methods, was used.
This approach lays an appropriate groundwork for focusing on phenomena of which we are aware in daily life but about which we do not have a deep and detailed understanding. The phenomenological approach is the investigation of individual universe. That is to say, individual experiences underlie this approach.
Geographic Information Science - The University of Auckland
In this context, in the study, the geography teachers were asked for their opinions with the aim of determining whether they are using GIS in their lessons, the reasons why they are using GIS, the reasons why GIS should be used and what difficulties they have when they are using GIS and the series of data obtained from their experiences were analysed via the content analysis method and then interpreted. The data of the study were collected via the semi- structured interview form developed by the researcher.
For this purpose, interviews were held with the participant teachers separately and data were collected in relation to the research questions. Study group This study was carried out with 15 geography teachers selected by using the purposeful sampling method and working at secondary educational institutions in a city centre of Turkey during the spring semester of the — educational year.
The interviews held with each of the participant teachers lasted 15—20 minutes on the average. The data belonging to the study group were given in Table 1. Table 1. When Table 1 is examined, it is observed that the study group was composed of a total of 15 teachers, 4 females and 11 males. In the study, it is observed that while six teachers had a teaching experience of 1—4 years, four teachers had a teaching experience of 5—9 years, one teacher had a teaching experience of 10—14 years and finally, four teachers had a teaching experience of 15 years and over.
Data analysis The data obtained in the study were analysed via the content analysis technique. Findings In this section of the study, the findings obtained from the interviews held with the geography teachers were given in order, in tables, in company with the questions formed in relation to the purpose of the study.
Table 2. In Table 3, information was given about whether they had any education lesson, seminar, private course, etc. Table 3. In fact, during the interview process, six participant geography teachers stated not having received any private course, training or undergraduate course on GIS. While only two of the teachers stated having received private training on GIS, one teacher stated having met GIS in the in-service training process.
However, the other six teachers stated having received only one undergraduate course on GIS. Table 4. Do you think that the GIS should be used in geography lessons? Table 5 includes information about whether the participant teachers are using GIS or not. Table 5. In fact, according to Table 5, while In Table 6, the reasons why the teachers were using this technology in their lessons were given. However, here, each teacher drew attention to more than one reason. Table 6. However, its allowing for the comparison and analysis of geographical data, addressing more than one sensory organs and harmony with geography subjects are the other reasons why GIS is used.
Table 7 includes the distribution of the reasons expressed by the teachers who are not using GIS in their geography lesson in relation to why they are not using it. Table 7. However, another reason was the inappropriate classroom environments. Table 8. Why GIS should be used in geography lessons? Category f GIS facilitates the collection and analysis of geographic data 5 GIS visualises and concretises geographical data 5 GIS can be used in many geography subjects 2 GIS is effective on the solution of complicated issues 1 GIS is effective on making a decision in relation to a space 1 GIS allows for experiential learning 1 GIS facilitates the answering of geographical questions 1 GIS allows for student-centred teaching 1 In the study, when the teachers using and not using GIS in their geography lessons were asked why you think GIS should be used in geography lessons, they uttered more than one reasons for this.
In Table 9, information was given about the geographical skills which GIS might have students acquire. Table 9. However, when it was examined if the teachers had any GIS experience, it was found that only two teachers stated having received private training on GIS and one teacher stated having met GIS during the in- service training process.
Moreover, the other six teachers stated having received training related to GIS only at the undergraduate level. It was determined that the remaining six teachers did not have any experience in relation to GIS. Again, this result shows similarity to the results of the study by Akinyemi Similarly, Aladag found in a study that the teachers held the opinion that GIS required to be used in lessons and had many advantages to education and teaching. Rickles, Ellul and Haklay determined in their interdisciplinary study on the use of GIS that the interdisciplinary researchers stated their desire to use GIS to obtain, analyse and visualise data.
In the study, it was emphasised that the teachers were not competent enough to use the GIS technology. This result is supported by those which were obtained from the studies by Aydin and Cepni , Aydin and Kaya , Bednarz , Karademir and Shin In fact, although Bednarz emphasises the importance of teacher training and competence in the use of GIS, Karademir found in a study on the field knowledge competence of the preservice geography teachers that the preservice teachers were not competent enough to use GIS.
According to the results of the study by Artvinli , when mentioning the advantages of the use of GIS, the teachers generally stated that GIS facilitated learning and supported active learning. Again, Aydin and Kilcan determined in their study that the participant teachers stated that it was useful to use GIS for many subjects of geography mainly map information and population.
GIScience Teaching and Learning Perspectives
In Aladag study, when the teachers mentioned the advantages of GIS, they emphasised its increasing visuality, developing map information, contributing to permanency and making learning enjoyable as well as usability in the teaching of many subjects of geography. In the study, the obstacles before the use of GIS in lessons were examined and some limitations were found in relation to this matter. This finding shows similarity to those reached by Aladag Kerski, Demirci and Andrew drew attention to these difficulties and emphasised that educators continuously uttered problems related to the CBS software and hardware.
Moreover, Cukur mentioned the costliness of the tools and equipment which were necessary to perform the main function of GIS and the insufficient number of teachers being able to use GIS and develop materials in relation to this matter as the most important limitations about this matter. Similar limitations were mentioned by Patterson, Reeve and Page , too.
Special Issue: Geospatial Technologies in Teacher Education
According to Ugurlu , one of the most important obstacles before the use of GIS in teaching environments was teachers who had insufficient knowledge about and time to use GIS. Similarly, Artvinli mentioned the lack of hardware and insufficient geography lesson hours as the main limitations to the use of GIS.
However, Favier and Schee emphasised the fact that although the use of GIS had increased in recent years, teachers still had insufficient knowledge about the best way of using GIS in lessons. Moreover, Bevainis determined after the interviews with five geography teachers that some of the teachers used GIS in their lessons but there were problems at schools in relation to the use of this technology. Moreover, one of the remarkable findings obtained following the interviews held with the teachers in the study was that the use of GIS in geography lessons contributed to the development of map reading and questioning skills in the students.
Likewise, Kinniburgh determined in a study that GIS had an important potential in making contribution especially to the development of map skills in individuals. Necessary works should be carried out to make teachers use this technology in their lessons more effectively and efficiently. It is necessary to eliminate difficulties and obstacles before the use of GIS in lessons. References Akinyemi, F.
An assessment of gis use for teaching in Rwandan secondary schools. The Geography Teacher, 12 1 , 27— Aktepe, V. Aladag, E. The effect of geographic information system GIS in teaching social studies to the academic achievements and motivation of 7th grade students of primary education Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Altas, N.
Evaluation of using of GIS Geographic Information System in teaching of geography in higher education in terms of the student opinions. Artvinli, E. Approaches of geography teachers to geographical information systems GIS. Aydin, F. Cografi bilgi sistemlerine yonelik hizmetici egitim faaliyetlerinin ogretmen goruslerine gore degerlendirilmesi. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 6 6 , — Cografya dersinde cografi bilgi sistemleri kullanimina yonelik ogretmen gorusleri.
Baker, T. University of Kansas, Lawrence. Journal of Geography, 6 , — Bas, T. Nitel arastirma yontemleri NVivo 7. Ankara, Turkey: Seckin Yayincilik.
Bednarz, S. Geographic information systems: a tool to support geography and environmental education? GeoJournal, 60, — Bevainis, L. Applying the GIS in school education: the experience of Japanese geography teachers. Broda, H. The Social Studies, 94 4 , — Cepni, O. World Applied Sciences Journal, 25 12 , — Cukur, H. The targets of geography teaching and GIS. Dokuz Eylul University. The Journal of Buca Faculty of Education, 18, 87— Daban, S. Cografya ogretiminde bilgisayar ve programlarinin kullanimi Yayimlanmamis yuksek lisans tezi.
Degerliyurt, M. Defining the geography by geographical information systems. Eastern Geographical Review, 20 Degirmenci, Y. The effects of GIS Geographical Information Systems supported education on academic success and motivation of student candidates Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
Doganay, H. In terms of its meaning, definition, subject and philosophy some opinions on science of geography. Eastern Geographical Review, 16 Favier, T. Exploring the characteristics of an optimal design for inquiry-based geography education with geographic information systems. Fitzpatrick, C. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 10 1 , 85— Hagevik, R.
The effects of online science instruction using geographic information systems to foster inquiry learning of teachers and middle school science student Unpublished doctoral dissertation. North Carolina State University, Raleigh. Kapluhan, E. Marmara Geographical Review, 29, 34— Karademir, N.
Unwin, Kenneth E. Foote, Nicholas J. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Innovative book taking a look at recent innovations and teaching developments in the course provision of GI Science and Technology in higher education. Includes coverage and practical advice on curriculum design, teaching with GIS technology, distance and eLearning with global examples from leading academics in the field. Read more Read less.
About the Author
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