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Also on November 21, and at least partially in response to the vote in White House, Mr. Slagle, who was by then attending services in Hartsville, presented the members there the bylaws purportedly written by P. At least five distinct tracts of land3 are titled in the names of trustees for the use and benefit of the Church. In Robertson County, the White House sanctuary sits on approximately They then deeded the property to trustees for the use and benefit of the Church.
The surviving grantors claim they retained a right of first refusal should the property ever be sold. The record is unclear as to how many of these properties in which the Church still retains an interest.
In Trousdale County, the Church has an interest in two lots: an improved lot of 3. The sellers of the property on which the sanctuary sits, David and Theresa Parker, placed two restrictions in the deed. The Church of the First Born of Tennessee et al. The Defendants sought a judgment that the unincorporated association retained title to the dispute properties. The Corporation responded by filing a motion for partial summary judgment.
The Corporation sought a judgment that the Church was congregational 9 and that a congregational vote was required to determine ownership of Church property. The court found the Church to be congregationally governed with two places of worship, not a connectional or hierarchical church. The court further concluded that any actions taken by the board of deacons affirmed by the members in White House were void, including the formation of the Corporation.
As such, the Church was not incorporated. Finally, the court held that any transfer of the Trousdale County properties required approval of two-thirds of the members attending in Hartsville. On appeal, the Corporation raises several issues. Second, the lack of established precedent coupled with the finding that the Church was congregational required the court to order a membership- wide vote to resolve the dispute.
Third, the Corporation argues the trial court erred in ruling on matters not properly before it, such as determining the November election of deacons was void, how deacons must be appointed, or who constituted the valid deacons for the Church.
Fourth, the Corporation complains that the Defendants did not 8 By agreement of the parties, the trial court dismissed without prejudice a claim for libel of title directed to Ms. Cole only.source link
Church of God in Christ
Busby, 18 S. Finally, the Corporation argues that the court failed to state the legal grounds for some of its rulings. The Defendants, who of course seek affirmance of the ruling below, reframe the issues for appeal. In support of the ruling, the Defendants argue, in part, that the Corporation is not affiliated with the Church and has no valid claim to the Church properties.
Courts must consider questions of justiciability, such as standing, before reaching the merits of claims. City of Memphis v. Hargett, S. Constitutional standing, the issue in this case, requires the plaintiff to demonstrate 1 a distinct and palpable injury; 2 a causal connection between the alleged injury and the challenged conduct; and 3 that the injury can be redressed through a favorable decision of the court.
City of Memphis, S. A standing analysis focuses on the party, rather than the merits of the claim. Air Research Testing Auth. In actions such as this one, our supreme court has held a member of the church congregation has standing. Nance v. See e. Brown, So. Rollins, S. Further, where the church is unincorporated, courts in other jurisdictions have permitted one or more members to sue on behalf of all members or allowed trustees holding title to the property to sue.
Grossman, P. Lambeth, S. Nance, 18 S. They were further commanded by the apostles and Fathers of the Church, as well as by the doctors and pastors of souls. The counsels are a divine gift, which the Church received from its Lord and which it always safeguards with the help of His grace. Church authority has the duty, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, of interpreting these evangelical counsels, of regulating their practice and finally to build on them stable forms of living.
Thus it has come about, that, as if on a tree which has grown in the field of the Lord, various forms of solidarity and community life, as well as various religious families have branched out in a marvelous and multiple way from this divinely given seed. Such a multiple and miraculous growth augments both the progress of the members of these various religious families themselves and the welfare of the entire Body of Christ. They further offer their members the support of fraternal association in the militia of Christ and of liberty strengthened by obedience.
Thus these religious are able to tranquilly fulfill and faithfully observe their religious profession and so spiritually rejoicing make progress on the road of charity. From the point of view of the divine and hierarchical structure of the Church, the religious state of life is not an intermediate state between the clerical and lay states.
But, rather, the faithful of Christ are called by God from both these states of life so that they might enjoy this particular gift in the life of the Church and thus each in one's own way, may be of some advantage to the salvific mission of the Church. The faithful of Christ bind themselves to the three aforesaid counsels either by vows, or by other sacred bonds, which are like vows in their purpose.
By such a bond, a person is totally dedicated to God, loved beyond all things. In this way, that person is ordained to the honor and service of God under a new and special title. Indeed through Baptism a person dies to sin and is consecrated to God. However, in order that he may be capable of deriving more abundant fruit from this baptismal grace, he intends, by the profession of the evangelical counsels in the Church, to free himself from those obstacles, which might draw him away from the fervor of charity and the perfection of divine worship.
By his profession of the evangelical counsels, then, he is more intimately consecrated to divine service. Since this is so, the spiritual life of these people should then be devoted to the welfare of the whole Church. From this arises their duty of working to implant and strengthen the Kingdom of Christ in souls and to extend that Kingdom to every clime.
This duty is to be undertaken to the extent of their capacities and in keeping with the proper type of their own vocation. This can be realized through prayer or active works of the apostolate. It is for this reason that the Church preserves and fosters the special character of her various religious institutes. The profession of the evangelical counsels, then, appears as a sign which can and ought to attract all the members of the Church to an effective and prompt fulfillment of the duties of their Christian vocation.
The people of God have no lasting city here below, but look forward to one that is to come.
Since this is so, the religious state, whose purpose is to free its members from earthly cares, more fully manifests to all believers the presence of heavenly goods already possessed here below. Furthermore, it not only witnesses to the fact of a new and eternal life acquired by the redemption of Christ, but it foretells the future resurrection and the glory of the heavenly kingdom. Christ proposed to His disciples this form of life, which He, as the Son of God, accepted in entering this world to do the will of the Father. This same state of life is accurately exemplified and perpetually made present in the Church.
The religious state clearly manifests that the Kingdom of God and its needs, in a very special way, are raised above all earthly considerations. Finally it clearly shows all men both the unsurpassed breadth of the strength of Christ the King and the infinite power of the Holy Spirit marvelously working in the Church. Thus, the state which is constituted by the profession of the evangelical counsels, though it is not the hierarchical structure of the Church, nevertheless, undeniably belongs to its life and holiness.
It is the duty of the ecclesiastical hierarchy to regulate the practice of the evangelical counsels by law, since it is the duty of the same hierarchy to care for the People of God and to lead them to most fruitful pastures. It also aids by its vigilant and safeguarding authority those institutes variously established for the building up of Christ's Body in order that these same institutes may grow and flourish according to the spirit of the founders. Any institute of perfection and its individual members may be removed from the jurisdiction of the local Ordinaries by the Supreme Pontiff and subjected to himself alone.
This is done in virtue of his primacy over the entire Church in order to more fully provide for the necessities of the entire flock of the Lord and in consideration of the common good. The members of these institutes, in fulfilling their obligation to the Church due to their particular form of life, ought to show reverence and obedience to bishops according to the sacred canons. The bishops are owed this respect because of their pastoral authority in their own churches and because of the need of unity and harmony in the apostolate.
The Church not only raises the religious profession to the dignity of a canonical state by her approval, but even manifests that this profession is a state consecrated to God by the liturgical setting of that profession. The Church itself, by the authority given to it by God, accepts the vows of the newly professed. It begs aid and grace from God for them by its public prayer. It commends them to God, imparts a spiritual blessing on them and accompanies their self-offering by the Eucharistic sacrifice. Religious should carefully keep before their minds the fact that the Church presents Christ to believers and non-believers alike in a striking manner daily through them.
The Church thus portrays Christ in contemplation on the mountain, in His proclamation of the kingdom of God to the multitudes, in His healing of the sick and maimed, in His work of converting sinners to a better life, in His solicitude for youth and His goodness to all men, always obedient to the will of the Father who sent Him. All men should take note that the profession of the evangelical counsels, though entailing the renunciation of certain values which are to be undoubtedly esteemed, does not detract from a genuine development of the human persons, but rather by its very nature is most beneficial to that development.
Indeed the counsels, voluntarily undertaken according to each one's personal vocation, contribute a great deal to the purification of heart and spiritual liberty. They continually stir up the fervor of charity. But especially they are able to more fully mold the Christian man to that type of chaste and detached life, which Christ the Lord chose for Himself and which His Mother also embraced. This is clearly proven by the example of so many holy founders.
Let no one think that religious have become strangers to their fellowmen or useless citizens of this earthly city by their consecration. For even though it sometimes happens that religious do not directly mingle with their contemporaries, yet in a more profound sense these same religious are united with them in the heart of Christ and spiritually cooperate with them. In this way the building up of the earthly city may have its foundation in the Lord and may tend toward Him, lest perhaps those who build this city shall have labored in vain.
Therefore, this Sacred Synod encourages and praises the men and women, Brothers and Sisters, who in monasteries, or in schools and hospitals, or in the missions, adorn the Bride of Christ by their unswerving and humble faithfulness in their chosen consecration and render generous services of all kinds to mankind. Let each of the faithful called to the profession of the evangelical counsels, therefore, carefully see to it that he persevere and ever grow in that vocation God has given him. Let him do this for the increased holiness of the Church, for the greater glory of the one and undivided Trinity, which in and through Christ is the fount and the source of all holiness.
The Church, to which we are all called in Christ Jesus, and in which we acquire sanctity through the grace of God, will attain its full perfection only in the glory of heaven, when there will come the time of the restoration of all things. Christ, having been lifted up from the earth has drawn all to Himself. Sitting at the right hand of the Father, He is continually active in the world that He might lead men to the Church and through it join them to Himself and that He might make them partakers of His glorious life by nourishing them with His own Body and Blood.
Therefore the promised restoration which we are awaiting has already begun in Christ, is carried forward in the mission of the Holy Spirit and through Him continues in the Church in which we learn the meaning of our terrestrial life through our faith, while we perform with hope in the future the work committed to us in this world by the Father, and thus work out our salvation.
Already the final age of the world has come upon us and the renovation of the world is irrevocably decreed and is already anticipated in some kind of a real way; for the Church already on this earth is signed with a sanctity which is real although imperfect. However, until there shall be new heavens and a new earth in which justice dwells, the pilgrim Church in her sacraments and institutions, which pertain to this present time, has the appearance of this world which is passing and she herself dwells among creatures who groan and travail in pain until now and await the revelation of the sons of God.
Joined with Christ in the Church and signed with the Holy Spirit "who is the pledge of our inheritance", truly we are called and we are sons of God but we have not yet appeared with Christ in glory, in which we shall be like to God, since we shall see Him as He is. The Church has always believed that the apostles and Christ's martyrs who had given the supreme witness of faith and charity by the shedding of their blood, are closely joined with us in Christ, and she has always venerated them with special devotion, together with the Blessed Virgin Mary and the holy angels.
When we look at the lives of those who have faithfully followed Christ, we are inspired with a new reason for seeking the City that is to come and at the same time we are shown a most safe path by which among the vicissitudes of this world, in keeping with the state in life and condition proper to each of us, we will be able to arrive at perfect union with Christ, that is, perfect holiness. Nor is it by the title of example only that we cherish the memory of those in heaven, but still more in order that the union of the whole Church may be strengthened in the Spirit by the practice of fraternal charity.
Our union with the Church in heaven is put into effect in its noblest manner especially in the sacred Liturgy, wherein the power of the Holy Spirit acts upon us through sacramental signs. Celebrating the Eucharistic sacrifice therefore, we are most closely united to the Church in heaven in communion with and venerating the memory first of all of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, of Blessed Joseph and the blessed apostles and martyrs and of all the saints.
Let them therefore teach the faithful that the authentic cult of the saints consists not so much in the multiplying of external acts, but rather in the greater intensity of our love, whereby, for our own greater good and that of the whole Church, we seek from the saints "example in their way of life, fellowship in their communion, and aid by their intercession. For all of us, who are sons of God and constitute one family in Christ, as long as we remain in communion with one another in mutual charity and in one praise of the most holy Trinity, are corresponding with the intimate vocation of the Church and partaking in foretaste the liturgy of consummate glory.
Wishing in His supreme goodness and wisdom to effect the redemption of the world, "when the fullness of time came, God sent His Son, born of a woman Joined to Christ the Head and in the unity of fellowship with all His saints, the faithful must in the first place reverence the memory "of the glorious ever Virgin Mary, Mother of our God and Lord Jesus Christ". The Virgin Mary, who at the message of the angel received the Word of God in her heart and in her body and gave Life to the world, is acknowledged and honored as being truly the Mother of God and Mother of the Redeemer.
Redeemed by reason of the merits of her Son and united to Him by a close and indissoluble tie, she is endowed with the high office and dignity of being the Mother of the Son of God, by which account she is also the beloved daughter of the Father and the temple of the Holy Spirit. Because of this gift of sublime grace she far surpasses all creatures, both in heaven and on earth. At the same time, however, because she belongs to the offspring of Adam she is one with all those who are to be saved. She is "the mother of the members of Christ. The Catholic Church, taught by the Holy Spirit, honors her with filial affection and piety as a most beloved mother.
Wherefore this Holy Synod, in expounding the doctrine on the Church, in which the divine Redeemer works salvation, intends to describe with diligence both the role of the Blessed Virgin in the mystery of the Incarnate Word and the Mystical Body, and the duties of redeemed mankind toward the Mother of God, who is mother of Christ and mother of men, particularly of the faithful. It does not, however, have it in mind to give a complete doctrine on Mary, nor does it wish to decide those questions which the work of theologians has not yet fully clarified.
Those opinions therefore may be lawfully retained which are propounded in Catholic schools concerning her, who occupies a place in the Church which is the highest after Christ and yet very close to us. The Sacred Scriptures of both the Old and the New Testament, as well as ancient Tradition show the role of the Mother of the Saviour in the economy of salvation in an ever clearer light and draw attention to it. The books of the Old Testament describe the history of salvation, by which the coming of Christ into the world was slowly prepared.
These earliest documents, as they are read in the Church and are understood in the light of a further and full revelation, bring the figure of the woman, Mother of the Redeemer, into a gradually clearer light. When it is looked at in this way, she is already prophetically foreshadowed in the promise of victory over the serpent which was given to our first parents after their fall into sin. With her the exalted Daughter of Sion, and after a long expectation of the promise, the times are fulfilled and the new Economy established, when the Son of God took a human nature from her, that He might in the mysteries of His flesh free man from sin.
The Father of mercies willed that the incarnation should be preceded by the acceptance of her who was predestined to be the mother of His Son, so that just as a woman contributed to death, so also a woman should contribute to life. That is true in outstanding fashion of the mother of Jesus, who gave to the world Him who is Life itself and who renews all things, and who was enriched by God with the gifts which befit such a role.
It is no wonder therefore that the usage prevailed among the Fathers whereby they called the mother of God entirely holy and free from all stain of sin, as though fashioned by the Holy Spirit and formed as a new creature. Embracing God's salvific will with a full heart and impeded by no sin, she devoted herself totally as a handmaid of the Lord to the person and work of her Son, under Him and with Him, by the grace of almighty God, serving the mystery of redemption.
Rightly therefore the holy Fathers see her as used by God not merely in a passive way, but as freely cooperating in the work of human salvation through faith and obedience. For, as St. Irenaeus says, she "being obedient, became the cause of salvation for herself and for the whole human race. This union of the Mother with the Son in the work of salvation is made manifest from the time of Christ's virginal conception up to His death it is shown first of all when Mary, arising in haste to go to visit Elizabeth, is greeted by her as blessed because of her belief in the promise of salvation and the precursor leaped with joy in the womb of his mother.
When she presented Him to the Lord in the temple, making the offering of the poor, she heard Simeon foretelling at the same time that her Son would be a sign of contradiction and that a sword would pierce the mother's soul, that out of many hearts thoughts might be revealed. His Mother indeed kept these things to be pondered over in her heart. In the public life of Jesus, Mary makes significant appearances. This is so even at the very beginning, when at the marriage feast of Cana, moved with pity, she brought about by her intercession the beginning of miracles of Jesus the Messiah.
Finally, she was given by the same Christ Jesus dying on the cross as a mother to His disciple with these words: "Woman, behold thy son". But since it has pleased God not to manifest solemnly the mystery of the salvation of the human race before He would pour forth the Spirit promised by Christ, we see the apostles before the day of Pentecost "persevering with one mind in prayer with the women and Mary the Mother of Jesus, and with His brethren", and Mary by her prayers imploring the gift of the Spirit, who had already overshadowed her in the Annunciation.
There is but one Mediator as we know from the words of the apostle, "for there is one God and one mediator of God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself a redemption for all". For all the salvific influence of the Blessed Virgin on men originates, not from some inner necessity, but from the divine pleasure. It flows forth from the superabundance of the merits of Christ, rests on His mediation, depends entirely on it and draws all its power from it. In no way does it impede, but rather does it foster the immediate union of the faithful with Christ.
Predestined from eternity by that decree of divine providence which determined the incarnation of the Word to be the Mother of God, the Blessed Virgin was on this earth the virgin Mother of the Redeemer, and above all others and in a singular way the generous associate and humble handmaid of the Lord.
She conceived, brought forth and nourished Christ. She presented Him to the Father in the temple, and was united with Him by compassion as He died on the Cross. In this singular way she cooperated by her obedience, faith, hope and burning charity in the work of the Saviour in giving back supernatural life to souls. Wherefore she is our mother in the order of grace. This maternity of Mary in the order of grace began with the consent which she gave in faith at the Annunciation and which she sustained without wavering beneath the cross, and lasts until the eternal fulfillment of all the elect.
Taken up to heaven she did not lay aside this salvific duty, but by her constant intercession continued to bring us the gifts of eternal salvation. For no creature could ever be counted as equal with the Incarnate Word and Redeemer. Just as the priesthood of Christ is shared in various ways both by the ministers and by the faithful, and as the one goodness of God is really communicated in different ways to His creatures, so also the unique mediation of the Redeemer does not exclude but rather gives rise to a manifold cooperation which is but a sharing in this one source.
The Church does not hesitate to profess this subordinate role of Mary. It knows it through unfailing experience of it and commends it to the hearts of the faithful, so that encouraged by this maternal help they may the more intimately adhere to the Mediator and Redeemer. By reason of the gift and role of divine maternity, by which she is united with her Son, the Redeemer, and with His singular graces and functions, the Blessed Virgin is also intimately united with the Church. As St. Ambrose taught, the Mother of God is a type of the Church in the order of faith, charity and perfect union with Christ.
The Son whom she brought forth is He whom God placed as the first-born among many brethren, namely the faithful, in whose birth and education she cooperates with a maternal love. The Church indeed, contemplating her hidden sanctity, imitating her charity and faithfully fulfilling the Father's will, by receiving the word of God in faith becomes herself a mother. By her preaching she brings forth to a new and immortal life the sons who are born to her in baptism, conceived of the Holy Spirit and born of God. She herself is a virgin, who keeps the faith given to her by her Spouse whole and entire.
Imitating the mother of her Lord, and by the power of the Holy Spirit, she keeps with virginal purity an entire faith, a firm hope and a sincere charity. But while in the most holy Virgin the Church has already reached that perfection whereby she is without spot or wrinkle, the followers of Christ still strive to increase in holiness by conquering sin.
Piously meditating on her and contemplating her in the light of the Word made man, the Church with reverence enters more intimately into the great mystery of the Incarnation and becomes more and more like her Spouse. For Mary, who since her entry into salvation history unites in herself and re-echoes the greatest teachings of the faith as she is proclaimed and venerated, calls the faithful to her Son and His sacrifice and to the love of the Father.
Seeking after the glory of Christ, the Church becomes more like her exalted Type, and continually progresses in faith, hope and charity, seeking and doing the will of God in all things. Hence the Church, in her apostolic work also, justly looks to her, who, conceived of the Holy Spirit, brought forth Christ, who was born of the Virgin that through the Church He may be born and may increase in the hearts of the faithful also. The Virgin in her own life lived an example of that maternal love, by which it behooves that all should be animated who cooperate in the apostolic mission of the Church for the regeneration of men.
Placed by the grace of God, as God's Mother, next to her Son, and exalted above all angels and men, Mary intervened in the mysteries of Christ and is justly honored by a special cult in the Church. Clearly from earliest times the Blessed Virgin is honored under the title of Mother of God, under whose protection the faithful took refuge in all their dangers and necessities. The various forms of piety toward the Mother of God, which the Church within the limits of sound and orthodox doctrine, according to the conditions of time and place, and the nature and ingenuity of the faithful has approved, bring it about that while the Mother is honored, the Son, through whom all things have their being and in whom it has pleased the Father that all fullness should dwell, is rightly known, loved and glorified and that all His commands are observed.
This most Holy Synod deliberately teaches this Catholic doctrine and at the same time admonishes all the sons of the Church that the cult, especially the liturgical cult, of the Blessed Virgin, be generously fostered, and the practices and exercises of piety, recommended by the magisterium of the Church toward her in the course of centuries be made of great moment, and those decrees, which have been given in the early days regarding the cult of images of Christ, the Blessed Virgin and the saints, be religiously observed.
Let them assiduously keep away from whatever, either by word or deed, could lead separated brethren or any other into error regarding the true doctrine of the Church. Let the faithful remember moreover that true devotion consists neither in sterile or transitory affection, nor in a certain vain credulity, but proceeds from true faith, by which we are led to know the excellence of the Mother of God, and we are moved to a filial love toward our mother and to the imitation of her virtues.
In the interim just as the Mother of Jesus, glorified in body and soul in heaven, is the image and beginning of the Church as it is to be perfected is the world to come, so too does she shine forth on earth, until the day of the Lord shall come, as a sign of sure hope and solace to the people of God during its sojourn on earth. It gives great joy and comfort to this holy and general Synod that even among the separated brethren there are some who give due honor to the Mother of our Lord and Saviour, especially among the Orientals, who with devout mind and fervent impulse give honor to the Mother of God, ever virgin.
Each and all these items which are set forth in this dogmatic Constitution have met with the approval of the Council Fathers. And We by the apostolic power given Us by Christ together with the Venerable Fathers in the Holy Spirit, approve, decree and establish it and command that what has thus been decided in the Council be promulgated for the glory of God. A question has arisen regarding the precise theological note which should be attached to the doctrine that is set forth in the Schema de Ecclesia and is being put to a vote.
The Theological Commission has given the following response regarding the Modi that have to do with Chapter III of the de Ecclesia Schema: "As is self-evident, the Council's text must always be interpreted in accordance with the general rules that are known to all. On this occasion the Theological Commission makes reference to its Declaration of March 6, , the text of which we transcribe here:. The rest of the things which the sacred Council sets forth, inasmuch as they are the teaching of the Church's supreme magisterium, ought to be accepted and embraced by each and every one of Christ's faithful according to the mind of the sacred Council.
The mind of the Council becomes known either from the matter treated or from its manner of speaking, in accordance with the norms of theological interpretation. A preliminary note of explanation is being given to the Council Fathers from higher-authority, regarding the Modi bearing on Chapter III of the Schema de Ecclesia; the doctrine set forth in Chapter III ought to be explained and understood in accordance with the meaning and intent of this explanatory note. The Commission has decided to preface the assessment of the Modi with the following general observations.
For this reason, in reply to Modus 12 it is expressly said of the Twelve that the Lord set them up "as a college or stable group. For the same reason, the words "Ordo" or "Corpus" are used throughout with reference to the College of bishops. The parallel between Peter and the rest of the Apostles on the one hand, and between the Supreme Pontiff and the bishops on the other hand, does not imply the transmission of the Apostles' extraordinary power to their successors; nor does it imply, as is obvious, equality between the head of the College and its members, but only a proportionality between the first relationship Peter-Apostles and the second Pope-bishops.
Thus the Commission decided to write "pari ratione, " not "eadem ratione," in n. Modus A person becomes a member of the College by virtue of Episcopal consecration and by hierarchical communion with the head of the College and with its members. In his consecration a person is given an ontological participation in the sacred functions [munera]; this is absolutely clear from Tradition, liturgical tradition included. The word "functions [munera]" is used deliberately instead of the word "powers [potestates]," because the latter word could be understood as a power fully ready to act.
But for this power to be fully ready to act, there must be a further canonical or juridical determination through the hierarchical authority. This determination of power can consist in the granting of a particular office or in the allotment of subjects, and it is done according to the norms approved by the supreme authority.
An additional norm of this sort is required by the very nature of the case, because it involves functions [munera] which must be exercised by many subjects cooperating in a hierarchical manner in accordance with Christ's will. It is evident that this "communion" was applied in the Church's life according to the circumstances of the time, before it was codified as law. For this reason it is clearly stated that hierarchical communion with the head and members of the church is required.
Communion is a notion which is held in high honor in the ancient Church and also today, especially in the East. However, it is not understood as some kind of vague disposition, but as an organic reality which requires a juridical form and is animated by charity. Hence the Commission, almost unanimously, decided that this wording should be used: "in hierarchical communion.
Modus 40 and the statements on canonical mission n. The documents of recent Pontiffs regarding the jurisdiction of bishops must be interpreted in terms of this necessary determination of powers. The College, which does not exist without the head, is said "to exist also as the subject of supreme and full power in the universal Church. For the College, always and of necessity, includes its head, because in the college he preserves unhindered his function as Christ's Vicar and as Pastor of the universal Church.
In other words, it is not a distinction between the Roman Pontiff and the bishops taken collectively, but a distinction between the Roman Pontiff taken separately and the Roman Pontiff together with the bishops. Since the Supreme Pontiff is head of the College, he alone is able to perform certain actions which are not at all within the competence of the bishops, e. It is up to the judgment of the Supreme Pontiff, to whose care Christ's whole flock has been entrusted, to determine, according to the needs of the Church as they change over the course of centuries, the way in which this care may best be exercised—whether in a personal or a collegial way.
The Roman Pontiff, taking account of the Church's welfare, proceeds according to his own discretion in arranging, promoting and approving the exercise of collegial activity. As Supreme Pastor of the Church, the Supreme Pontiff can always exercise his power at will, as his very office demands. Though it is always in existence, the College is not as a result permanently engaged in strictly collegial activity; the Church's Tradition makes this clear. In other words, the College is not always "fully active [in actu pleno]"; rather, it acts as a college in the strict sense only from time to time and only with the consent of its head.
The phrase "with the consent of its head" is used to avoid the idea of dependence on some kind of outsider; the term "consent" suggests rather communion between the head and the members, and implies the need for an act which belongs properly to the competence of the head. This is explicitly affirmed in n. The word "only" takes in all cases. It is evident from this that the norms approved by the supreme authority must always be observed.
It is clear throughout that it is a question of the bishops acting in conjunction with their head, never of the bishops acting independently of the Pope. In the latter instance, without the action of the head, the bishops are not able to act as a College: this is clear from the concept of "College. Without hierarchical communion the ontologico-sacramental function [munus], which is to be distinguished from the juridico-canonical aspect, cannot be exercised.
However, the Commission has decided that it should not enter into question of liceity and validity. These questions are left to theologians to discuss—specifically the question of the power exercised de facto among the separated Eastern Churches, about which there are various explanations. Cyprianus, Epist. Hilarius Pict. Augustinus, passim. Cyrillus Alex. Gregorius M. S Augustinus, Serm. Damascenus, Adv. Irenaeus, adv. Haer, 24, 1: PG 7, B; Harvey 2, 13i, ed. Sagnard, Sources Chr. Cyprianus, De Orat Dom. Augustinus, Serm.
Origenes, In Matth. Pro documentis liturgicis, cfr. Sacramentarium Gregorianum: PL 78, B. Vel C. Mohlberg, Liber Sactamentorum romanae ecclesiae, Romao O, p. Deus, qui ex omni coaptacione sanctorum aeternum tibi condis habitaculum Encycl Divinum illud, 9 maii AAS 29 p. Mystici Corporis, 1. Chrysostomus n Eph. Thomas, In Col. Marietti, II, n.
Sapientiae christianae, 10 ian. Satis cognitium, 29 iun. Pius XII, Litt. Humani genesis, 12 Aug. Symbolum Apostolicum: Denz. Saneta catholica apostolica Romana Ecelesia. I, Sess. III, Const. Pius XII, Alloc. Magnificate Dominum, 2 nov. Mediator Dei, 20 nov.
Pius XI, Litt. Miserentissimus Redemptor, 8 maii AAS 20 p. Pius XII Alloc. Vous nous avez, 22 sept. Cyrillus Hieros. Cabasilas, De vita in Christo, lib. III, de utilitate chrismatis: PG , Thomas, Summa Theol. III, q. Unusquisque proprium donum idion charisma habet ex Deo: alius quidem sic alius vero sic.. Augustinus, De Dono Persev. Irenaeus, Adv. Sources Chret. Augustinus, Bapt. V, 28, 39; PL 43, Certe manifestum est, id quod dicitur, in Ecdesia intus et foris, in corde, non in corpore cogitandum.
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Praeclara gratulationis, 20 iun. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. Caritatis studium, 25 iul. Pius XII, Nuntius radioph. Nell'alba, 24 dec. More basic were differences in the underlying approach to Biblical interpretation. For the Churches of Christ, any practices not present in accounts of New Testament worship were not permissible in the church, and they could find no New Testament documentation of the use of instrumental music in worship.
For the Christian Churches, any practices not expressly forbidden could be considered. In , at the International Convention of Christian Churches Disciples of Christ , those Christian Churches that favored a denominational structure, wished to be more ecumenical, and also accepted more of the modern liberal theology of various denominations, adopted a new "provisional design" for their work together, becoming the Christian Church Disciples of Christ.
To object to any child of God participating in the service on account of his race, social or civil state, his color or race , is to object to Jesus Christ and to cast him from our association. It is a fearful thing to do. I have never attended a church that negroes did not attend. Early Restoration Movement leaders varied in their views of slavery , reflecting the range of positions common in the antebellum U.
Stone was a strong opponent of slavery , arguing that there was no Biblical justification for the form of slavery then being practiced in the United States and calling for immediate emancipation. After the Civil War , black Christians who had been worshiping in mixed-race Restoration Movement congregations formed their own congregations. He estimated that by January he had "traveled 23, miles, preached 1, sermons, and baptized converts". During the Civil Rights Movement of the s and s the Churches of Christ struggled with changing racial attitudes.
Benson of Harding University railed against racial integration, claiming that racial segregation was the Divine Order. Hardeman, the president of Freed-Hardeman , was adamant that the black and white races should not mingle, and refused to shake hands with black Christians. Efforts to address racism continued through the following decades. The tradition of a capella congregational singing in the Churches of Christ is deep set and the rich history of the style has stimulated the creation of many hymns in the early 20th century. Teddlie "Worthy Art Thou". More traditional Church of Christ hymns commonly are in the style of gospel hymnody.
The hymnal Great Songs of the Church , which was first published in and has had many subsequent editions, is widely used. While the more conservative and traditional Churches of Christ do not use instruments, since the early s about 20 in the U. Though there was agreement that separate para-church "missionary societies" could not be established on the belief that such work could only be performed through local congregations , a doctrinal conflict ensued about how this work was to be done.
Eventually, the funding and control of outreach programs in the United States such as homes for orphans, nursing homes, mission work, setting up new congregations, Bible colleges or seminaries, and large-scale radio and television programs became part of the controversy. Congregations which supported and participated in pooling funds for these institutional activities are said to be " sponsoring church " congregations. Congregations which have traditionally opposed these organized sponsorship activities are said to be " non-institutional " congregations.
This "Institutional Controversy" resulted in the largest division among Churches of Christ in the 20th century. The International Churches of Christ had their roots in a "discipling" movement that arose among the mainline Churches of Christ during the s. That year he started a new project known as Campus Advance based on principles borrowed from the Campus Crusade and the Shepherding Movement. Centered on the University of Florida , the program called for a strong evangelical outreach and an intimate religious atmosphere in the form of soul talks and prayer partners.
Soul talks were held in student residences and involved prayer and sharing overseen by a leader who delegated authority over group members. Prayer partners referred to the practice of pairing a new Christian with an older guide for personal assistance and direction. Both procedures led to "in-depth involvement of each member in one another's lives", and critics accused Lucas of fostering cultism. The Crossroads Movement later spread into some other Churches of Christ.
The congregation grew rapidly, and was renamed the Boston Church of Christ. Most members of the Churches of Christ live outside the United States.
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Although there is no reliable counting system, it is anecdotally believed there may be more than 1,, members of the Churches of Christ in Africa , approximately 1,, in India , and 50, in Central and South America. Total worldwide membership is over 3,,, with approximately 1,, in the U. Although there is no reliable counting system, it is anecdotally believed to be 1,, or more members of the Churches of Christ in Africa. Estimates are that there are 2, or more Restoration Movement congregations in India,  : 37,38 with a membership of approximately 1,, Historically, Restoration Movement groups from Great Britain were more influential than those from the United States in the early development of the movement in Australia.
Churches of Christ grew up independently in several locations. Ultimately, all three found general acceptance in the movement. A relatively small proportion of total membership comes from Canada. A growing portion of the Canadian demographic is made up of immigrant members of the church. This is partly the result of Canadian demographics as a whole, and partly due to decreased interest amongst late generation Canadians.
However, many congregations of various sizes typically under members meet all across Canada. The use of instrumental music in worship was not a source of division among the Churches of Christ in Great Britain before World War I. More significant was the issue of pacifism ; a national conference was established in for congregations that opposed the war.
Membership declined rapidly during and after the First World War. Many people in more traditional Churches of Christ see these groups as having more in common with Pentecostal churches. In Brazil there are above congregations and , members from the Restoration Movement. Most of them were established by Lloyd David Sanders. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Autonomous Christian congregations associated with one another through distinct beliefs and practices.
This article is about a specific fellowship of Christian congregations. For Churches of Christ that do not agree with congregational support of church or para-church organizations, see The churches of Christ non-institutional. For groups of autonomous congregations using the name "church of Christ" that have no historical connection with the Restoration Movement, see Churches of Christ non-Restoration Movement. For other uses, see Church of Christ. See also: Baptism in early Christianity. See also: Restorationism. See also: Restoration Movement. See also: Christianity in the 19th century.
Restoration Movement Timeline. United movement, using various names. Christian Churches both. Christian Church DoC. Christian Church. Independent and Co-operative. Christian churches and churches of Christ. Churches of Christ. See also: Churches of Christ in Australia. See also: Churches of Christ in Europe. Christianity portal. Retrieved This is a country-by-country tabulation, based on the enumeration of specific individual church locations and leaders.
While it is known to under-represent certain developing countries, it is the largest such enumeration, and improves significantly on earlier broad-based estimates having no supporting detail. See, e. Archived from the original on June 16, Also available via these links to church-of-christ. Leonard Allen and Richard T. It is neither Catholic, Jewish nor Protestant. It was not founded in 'protest' of any institution, and it is not the product of the 'Restoration' or 'Reformation.
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Eerdmans Publishing Co. Hill, Charles H. This building erected in The Christians who use such cornerstones reason that the church of Jesus Christ began on Pentecost, A. Therefore, to be true to the New Testament, the twentieth-century church must trace its origins to the first century. Indeed, the cornerstones of many church of Christ buildings read 'Founded, A.