Guide Analysis of J.S. Bachs forty-eight fugues (Das wohltemperirte clavier)

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  1. Analysis of J.S. Bach's wohltemperirtes Clavier (48 preludes & fugues)
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  3. Outline Analysis of Each of J. S. Bach's Forty-Eight Fugues: (In the "Das wohltemperirte Clavier")
  4. Analysis of J.S. Bach's forty-eight fugues (Das wohltemperirte clavier) [Harcover]

Gustafson, p. Description st 1 L1,b. It must be the misplaced one for the coming NH. Correction of alignment. The scribe assumed that the first NH was mistakenly inked in. Ink: Two shades are distinguished: a Bl: used for notes and staves. A slightly darker shade is found in orns and title, possibly added at different times; b vDBr: used for adding aligning indicators. Description al 15 L3,b. It is important to add that the voice texture of this section is substantially refined from the version presented in E. Original reading is not certain. Corrected notational consistency. The beams are extended from the preceding notes.

Observation: The reading in this bar was thus rather than compressed in the present reading. The accompanying Fugue was written prior to the Prelude. L col. Key, k-s: G minor: R. State of score: Rough fair copy by JSB. Revisions: It is possible that as he copied along, JSB revised the piece in significant details on this score. H was possibly amended later by comparing with A. Corrected possibly from without beam. Reconstruction The reading of Poel. Observation: Due to the fact that no more room is available on the sheet, many symbols in this bar are unusually compressed, appearing as somewhat vague symbols.

Thus it is inevitable that the chance of making copying mistakes increases. The missing rest is supplied in Am. It may be worth noting that F originally gave an 8ve lower for the first two notes of b. Thus it is most likely that JSB made a slip of the pen when he changed the notation of the exemplar at the copying stage of L.

State of score: Rough fair copy by JSB with involved revision process. Ink: Bl ink throughout. Two traditions and groups are clearly defined: Si Si: a possible earliest draft of the piece; Li Sii: a revision score, possibly worked out on Si directly; V: stemming from the earliest stage of L.

K1 was later changed back to the original reading of L. Description 1 cp 14 L3,b. Observation: Immediate amendment. This beat may have been planned initially as running parallel in 3rds with the soprano. On the other hand, as this section is constructed in clear-cut dialogue texture, this is more likely to be a copying mistake. Observation: Clef error at the beginning of a new page. This suggests that the exemplar used clef. Caused by clef error. Basically JSB kept using the continuous beaming for the repeating quaver motive so far except b. Description 13 r cm 72 L4,b. Observation: The order of notation of b.

At 2 bt, the alto was written first. The on 1 bt is changed to. Corrected from NH. Thus it is very likely that S was in very untidy, even to the extent that JSB himself made error when he was copying from it. C see page 17 above. It appears to have been written in s. Key, k-s: A major: R. State of score: Draft revision score by JSB, possibly composing partly on this score. Ink: The following four shades are distinguished in the first two pages, bb. P , H2 and Poel. K is divided into K1 and K4 less authentic and perhaps of early origin.

Description st 4 L1 end S,3: Ink is blurred caused by moisture. No trace of amending. Observation: Proof-reading is carried out with this shade of ink as there are many s added on d. It is likely that the piece was originally conceived in the k-s of three flats modal key. Judging from well-aligned notation, I would read that the soprano was written prior to the bass.

Note that the figure used in this bar, esp. S,1, appears for the first time in the piece. Corrected size? Changed from F c d e f e. The following bass direct is also re-notated. Thus there must be a pause, allowing ink to dry, which gave JSB an opportunity to revise this section. Observation: Two ties in S thin and A fat are not aligned.

It is likely that the one in S was added later. Changed pitch from cs, a 3rd above. This fact cannot prove the interpretation of a tie in L, for the pitch indication of a tie is often amb. Description 19 v vtx 70 L4,b. Marked with reduced-size notation. The original reading is not certain. Thinking that K stems from L, this revision must have been carried out at a later date. Bach There are 3 distinctive stages in the history of the title: 1.

The quill has much wider tip. This is the only example in L that large space is left blank f. Staves are not drawn. State of score: Calligraphic revision score by JSB, intended as a fair copy. There are several layers of minor revisions.

As in the case of the Prelude, the R. A and PrFg. C; K: it stemmed from a edited MS combining early and very late stages of L. Description 1 ml 6 R2,b.

Analysis of J.S. Bach's wohltemperirtes Clavier (48 preludes & fugues)

He wrote a L3 without delay, then wrote t-s. Corrected from a 3rd above. Light brown in colour. This revision was carried out after F stemmed. K and A give p. Bn gives a. Description 4 ml 14 R4,b. Note the reconstruction of the alto. Changed pitch from f, a 3rd below, either to avoid consecutive 8ves with B,3 or transposition error. Corrected pitch from either e or c. Within the branch of Bn, however, VII 45 added the acd at a later date and passed on its reading to P Description 17 v ml 34 L5,b.

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The 1st NH was amended in pitch; corrected from e. It is possible therefore that all the errors he made here can simply be attributed to the task of enharmonic change required at the copying stage. Changed pitch from c? K1 gives a. While all the others give p. See, for example, Pr. In Bn, this acd appears to have been added also.

The voice-leading and texture are much changed from the main line of tradition. Revisions: Several minor corrections only. Corrected from B c d. Corrected pitch, raising a 2nd from e f g a. Observation: This error at b. See my Reconstruction 75, p. The double bar was not located exactly at CHG PG, which would make the score difficult to use for performance purposes.

State of score: Tightly written non-calligraphic fair copy by JSB with some revisions. Many acds are sqz and are difficult to interpret whether they are added as an afterthought or written in compromised fashion. A1 contains many layers of revisions, one of which is possibly by JSB. On the other hand, the p. It seems that although the a.

No extant MSS I have examined so far gives p. This H2 reading is also found in Konwischny and P , though the latter was later changed to the p. It was later added to some of the copies of its branch, viz. It is present as in K1, and as in K4 and A. In P it was added later, possibly by Grasnick.

Both are written by JSB with the same quill with which he copied the piece. It starts with the left space by the Prelude. Staves are not firmly written. In many places lines are redrawn in free-hand. State of score: Tightly written fair copy by JSB who knew from the outset how much space he would need for this movement. Ink and Quill: Three types are distinguished: a Bl: used for notes and staves; b DBr: used for adding or blotting?

Basically it is the same version as L; V,H V: it lacks numerous ties and acds, in addition to ornaments. H Liii lacks several ties and acds that possibly indicate its earlier origin than the other two. Description ra L1,b. This could have caused by the uneven surface of the table when the staves were drawn. If this is the case, then the notational anomaly here is caused by the lack of room only. In K, the NV was interpreted instead as. It was also added later to P Description 7 cp 84 R3,b.

Thus he was writing the pattern similar to a , the shape possibly in the exemplar S. He suddenly changed his mind to write b. There remains a small hole. State of score: Calligraphic fair copy by JSB, in spacious writing. Made almost directly from his exemplar. Ink: Two shades of minimal difference can be distinguished. They are, however, used by different quills. Revisions: There are three amendments only. Description ra L5,b.

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Originally it was a down-stemmed symbol. In short, JSB was a bit tentative when he started to write 2 bt of this bar as the property of the alto, instead of the soprano. It has a distinguishable calligraphic shape from the rest of the sharps. The later section is to have this alteration for a structural reason, which is a good cause for revision. This acd is missing only from H.

State of score: Fair copy by JSB, made fairly directly from his exemplar. Although JSB uses. Also, considering the fact that there are many acds different from A or added later into L, JSB was not totally committed to writing a final version of the score here. Ink and Quill: Bl: used for notes and staves. Revisions: Most of the amendments were made before copies were made from L.

From the way JSB wrote some acds and the fact that some of them are not found in A, it is highly likely that JSB added them to L at the copying or proof-reading stage. A In all probability, the readings of A at b. Slightly different calligraphy. See also Reconstruction 13, page Though it is in s. Thus b would be the first choice for a composer in writing the passage.

This might well be a conjecture but also possible to think that Altnickol misinterpreted a direct placed at the end of the system. Description err 14 L5,b. Rests are missing. The motivically related earlier passage is b. This gives rise to a hypothesis that S, which did not include these revisions, was a very incomplete and inconsistent score.

To H they were added later. A1 gives no acd; A2 gives ; H and K give p. F, in this case, omits the acd: the scribe probably thought that the symbol was crossed out. These errors were note-alignment errors, which could have originated in the appearance of S. Thus it is at least possible to say that the same revision which we see in L is carried out in S. Key, k-s: A minor: no k-s. State of score: Calligraphic fair copy in appearance but a possible composing score, which was possibly prepared neatly from a short draft.

Ink: Two shades are distinguished: a Bl: used for both staves and notes; b DBr: used for proof-reading? All the amendments were carried out before copies were made. Only one added acd appears in a different shade. S was possibly written L directly on it; S: written as an improved version of L. Description ra L3,b. This took place after the NH was amended. They are all late revisions, only noticed at later proof-reading.

State of score: Slightly rough but calligraphic fair copy in JSB with some revision in mind, most likely based on the early version represented in S. Ink: Bl ink for notes and staves. Many ornaments and some rests were possibly added later at proof-reading. It bears the title Fugetta a 3, as attested in A1.

Outline Analysis of Each of J. S. Bach's Forty-Eight Fugues: (In the "Das wohltemperirte Clavier")

It was revised in many L V layers. A1 contains further authentic revisions, which can H,F be ascribed to JSB; A V: it lacks many rests and ties, some of which appear to have K been added later in L, suggesting its earliest origin in L; H, F: stemming from p.

For these reasons, I do not list them from this evidence alone. See Volume II for full listing. This should not mean that the reading of L is abandoned, but was probably kept as an alternative. At a later date, someone wrote this acd into P In A, this beat is notated as rhythm. Bach FORMAT The piece is not accommodated within one side of a bifolium: it goes to the recto occupying a complete extra column see also f.

State of score: Calligraphic revision score. This is an interesting difference between two traditions. A1 contains further minor revision by JSB? F contains many errors, F,K A most of which were corrected later. Description 1 ml 6 L2,b. Changed from rhythmic notation. Changed from a. Changed pitch from g or b? Trimmed NH on both ends of NH. Thus the reading of c can be seen as the earlier reading, for the reading a is an improved reading of it. Corrected shape and size. Observation: Harmony is changed from Gm to E 7. Weyse shows the same corr. F, H and Am. Description mk?

Corrected from. Two ink stains put a tie between. Corrected size and position. When he was writing the soprano, 3 bt, the idea came to him to flatten d to make the chord B m. The half-drawn flat to b. It is present in F amended later and K1. This acd is retained in H only.

From H2 and K4, the tie to the reading is missing. JSB solves the problem by using the bottom margins of both sides of the sheet. On this occasion, he used a narrow rastrum to draw staves. Key, k-s: B major: R. State of score: Uninspired fair copy, with some revision in mind while copying. Description 1 pr R1,b. Changed pitch from e or c? Corrected from NV. Changed from or?

Except V, only A gives p. The revised NH is so large and ambiguous that it is dangerous to assume that the reading reflected in the copies of L reflects the correct chronology. It can be more evidence for the chronology of revision from Si to L. Prelude 22 di J. The space in the bottom margin as well as part of the last SYS was used by the accompanying fugue. Key, k-s: B minor: R. State of score: Uninspired calligraphic fair copy with some revision in mind while copying.

A Jones Obs, p. Description mk 11 L2,b. Changed from B c d B. At composing level, the most closely related passage which the composer used as a reference would be b. Thus the origin of a. Corrected pitch or ink smudge? Morgan doubts its authenticity, however. The reading of a. From A3 this acd is missing. Nonetheless, it goes on to the other side of the sheet to make use of the extra space to complete the long movement. One reduced-size system was prepared with a ruler line by line.

State of score: Not carefully, yet tightly written revision score. It is highly likely that JSB decided to use a different metre originally and changed the form of notation at the copying stage. Corrected from or ink smudge? Corrected NV from. Corrected pitch from c. This directly resulted in his revising this part by adding these two quavers. H, F and K give p. Description st 35 L7,b. Corrected from shape, half NV notation of the exemplar. Corrected pitch from A or G. At the same time presumably, a new was created in T. See also Jones Stages, p. This acd is present in H and missing from V, K and A.

Description 23 cp 73 R7,b. The tie is in Br shade.

Analysis of J.S. Bach's forty-eight fugues (Das wohltemperirte clavier) [Harcover]

The symbol is blurred. Corrected NV from and the following is removed. Corrected NV from NV. This note is absent from H and K but added later to Weyse, Am. Someone added the acd in P and F2 at a later date. In Weyse and Am.

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Prelude The wave mark on the top of number 23 is hidden under the paper mounting. Some aspect of the format can even be seen as strategic, especially the second half. State of score: Untidy fair copy, marked by a hasty writing style. The paper shows extensive damage along the centre fold.

Revisions: There is no significant later revision. A1 contains many revisions, partly by JSB? Description rp L1,end It is possible that NHs were repaired after the paper damage some time later. No trace of revision. Corrected possibly from. Corrected pitch or NV? Observation: This rest is much more neatly written than the ones found elsewhere in this movement. It was added later to P , and K1 Weyse and Am. FORMAT This long movement is just accommodated within one side of a bifolium by making use of the bottom margin where a reduced-size system is prepared in free-hand.

Due to the damage to both sides of the sheet, the presence of instructions cannot be confirmed. It must Li have been corrected together with L at some stage post V Lii? By the time the scribe of F copied L in ca. Corrected pitch from B c d B, a 2nd above. Changed from G A B. Note that after b. The original reading is unclear. Corrected from up-stem. Two large ink blots. Marked in vDBl ink. Jones Stages, p.

V, H and A give the reading of a. Bach The numeral 24 appears to have been added later, judging by the calligraphy and the different thickness of the quill. Particularly noteworthy is that each of the two pages contains exactly the same number of bars. State of score: Calligraphic fair copy, which was prepared neatly from its exemplar written in half-NV notation. It contains many performance marks dots, slurs and orns and tempo mark.

Ink and Quill: The following four types are distinguished: a Bl: used throughout for staves and notes; b DBl: slightly different, darker shade of ink than ink a. It is found in the title and tempo mark. Description ra L2,b. Corrected pitch from e. Corrected from shape. Corrected beam from shape. State of score: Calligraphic fair copy. It is possible that JSB also revised the minor detail at the copying stage. Because of the change of pen-speed, calligraphic detail may be used as an important tool for analysis of instant revisions.

Ink: Bl ink is used throughout. Revisions: All the revisions were most likely carried out before copies were made. V contains a large number of variant readings A in bb. A possibility that V and H stemmed from an early, incomplete stage of L cannot be ruled out. Description 1 pr 11 L2,b. This is reflected in the non-vertical stem of B,4 d , and that JSB could not find room for the acds at this stage. Corrected from NV? Observation: A comparison between the reading of A and L reveals that JSB was perhaps involved in revision at this point.

One important feature of the reading of A is that its alto line is of an early character, which corresponds to many other parts, viz. Thus again it is worth quoting two variant readings — A and L. On compositional grounds, A is clearly the early reading of the two. Notation blurred. It happened after the music had been written. Observation: The corresponding early part, viz.

Vr P Bach P P P see also E. XY Hellmut Federhofer:. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Analysis of J. Description Excerpt from Analysis of J. Bach's Forty-Eight Fugues Das Wohltemperirte Clavier HE present handbook, on which my revered father was working enthusiastically up to the very day of his death, is designed to supply a concise analysis of Bach's immortal Forty-eight, for the use of students who are desirous of obtaining some insight into their construction. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books.

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