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Jacques Ehrmann characterizes the difference between p o l i t -i c a l and poetic language as follows: P o l i t i c a l language i s thus r e a l i s t i c i n the only acceptable sense of the word: that which subordinates r e a l i t y to an ideology. It i s therefore a means. Through i t laws are made and c a r r i e d out, and world order established.

Poetic language i s thus the "elsewhere" of the world. The p o l i t i c a l n o v e l i s t i s further confronted with the problem of subject matter. Daiches says about this discrepancy between l i t e r a t u r e and p o l i t i c s : Great l i t e r a t u r e m i l i t a t e s against abstractions, against any reduction of human experience to formulae, and works always with the concrete and l i v e l y.

In that sense a l l great l i t e r a t u r e i s a n t i - p o l i t i c a l , turning away from statements about how society should be governed, turning away from slogans and p o l a r i z a t i o n s between "goodies" and "baddies," i n order t o project and illuminate the ambigu-i t i e s and ambivalences of human character. In the intr o d u c t i o n to Under Western Eyes, Conrad speaks of his " e f f o r t of detachment: detachment from a l l passions, prejudices, and even from personal memories" p.

Mann approaches aesthetic distance p r i m a r i l y through irony, which explains why 91 he admired Conrad for h i s "moderne Doppelgesichtigkeit. But p o l i t i c s i s int e r e s t e d i n answers and the p o l i t i -c a l novel therefore works against the tendencies of i t s subject matter. In ad-d i t i o n to the inherent contradictions between l i t e r a t u r e and p o l i t i c s , Jens emphasizes that l i t e r a t u r e i s being pushed i n t o the background by the sciences.

For answers to human problems, man turns today t o the behavioral s c i e n t i s t , the psychologist, the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l researcher, the p h i -losopher, and even the natural s c i e n t i s t. Jens therefore contends: Kein Z w e i f e l , der Raum der Dichtung i s t schmaler geworden;r im Jahrhundert der Wissenschaften b l e i b t i h r nicht gerade v i e l P l a t z.

L i t e r ature retains i t s place i n the modern world because i t depicts p o e t i c a l l y what cannot be analyzed s c i e n t i f i c a l l y : Heute, wo man dabei i s t , die Wi r k l i c h k e i t auf die Kiirze von Formeln zu reduzieren, wo der Fanatismus zu Simplifizierungen fiihrt und das "Entweder-Oder" die Stunde r e g i e r t , v e r t r i t t der grosse S c h r i f t s t e l l e r , als Beschworer des Janusgesichts und Verteidiger der T o t a l i t a t , i n Leben und Werk jenes "So-wohl als auch" und "E i n e r s e i t s - a n d e r e r s e i t s " , das, a l i e n Leugnungen zum Trotz, unsere Z e i t i n besonderem Mass charak-t e r i s i e r t , Voraussetzung eines lebenswvirdigen Daseins i s t und deshalb, im Wort der Poesie komplex gespiegelt, vor a l -lem bewahrt werden s o l l t e.

Mann and Conrad depict man as a v i c t i m of p o l i t i c a l forces beyond h i s power of understanding. In Doktor Faustus and Under Western Eyes, p o l i t i c a l questions emerge pri m a r i l y as an i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of human experience i n general. It has often been pointed out that Conrad's p o l i t i c a l novels center around the same metaphysical and moral problems as h i s sea s t o r i e s.

Lois A. Michel, for instance, says Bantock believes that "The world of the ship, for Conrad, 38 97 provides a microcosm of a right ordering of s o c i a l l i f e. In Doktor Faustus, the p o l i t i c a l theme i s also paradigmatic f o r questions a r i s i n g i n Mann's other novels. Mann measures Germany's g u i l t not through a p o l i t i c a l analysis but i n terms of moral, metaphysical, and aesthetic considerations. The paradigmatic nature of the p o l i t i c a l theme, however, opens espe-c i a l l y Under Western Eyes to the c r i t i c i s m of an inadequately integrated structure.

Conrad has often been wrongly attacked f o r an apparent lack of unity between the personal and the p o l i t i c a l theme i n Under Western Eyes. Bantock, for instance, contends that Conrad "has misjudged h i s theme" be-cause, a f t e r a very successful f i r s t p a r t , the novel "degenerates i n t o a 98 v a r i a t i o n of the Lord Jim theme.

K a r l also argues that there are two contradictory themes i n Under Western Eyes. He implies that the personal theme i s more successful so that "This novel demonstrates, i n f a c t , that those sections devoted e x c l u s i v e l y t o p o l i t i c a l events are e s t h e t i c a l l y detrimental to the whole. In Doktor Faustus, the p a r a l l e l be-tween the personal and the p o l i t i c a l theme i s indeed almost too t i d y and systematic. The reader i s continually reminded that the aesthetic and the p o l i t i c a l subject matter are one and the same.

Mann p a r t l y achieves the 39 t i g h t unity of Doktor Faustus by means of the almost excl u s i v e l y symbolic value of Adrian Leverkiihn. Leverkiihn i s not a character of f l e s h and blood but, i n Mann's words, "eine I d e a l g e s t a l t " who r e s i s t s c o n c r e t i z a t i o n : "Dabei, merkwurdigerweise, gab ich ihm kaum ein Aussehen, eine Erscheinung, einen Korper. But Under Western Eyes also retains i t s unity f o r , although Razumov i s a more tangible p h y s i c a l presence than Adrian, his personal fate i s c l e a r l y representative of the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Russia.

The contention that Under Western Eyes lacks unity i s largely un-founded and seems to be based on a misreading of the novel. The following two chapters w i l l now demonstrate that Doktor Faustus and Under Western Eyes successfully avoid a s i m p l i s t i c explanation of the p o l i t i c a l questions they investigate and that the complexities of r e a l i t y are always preserved. I t w i l l also be seen that the p o l i t i c a l v i s i o n i n the novels does not necessarily r e f l e c t Mann's and Conrad's conservative views.

Against the back-ground of Mann's and Conrad's personal feelings and the general problems associated with the p o l i t i c a l novel, Doktor Faustus and Under Western Eyes can now be analyzed i n more d e t a i l. Ihab Hassan Middleton: Wes-ley an U n i v e r s i t y , , p. Wright, ed. Mann and Conrad do not merely want to i n d i c t H i t l e r ' s Germany or pre-revolutionary Russia but seek to comprehend the deeper causes for the two countries' p o l i t i c a l conditions. In the introduction to Under Western Eyes, Conrad states e x p l i c i t l y that h i s novel "was an attempt to render not so much the p o l i t i c a l state as the psychology of Russia i t s e l f " p.

Mann's attitude i s b a s i c a l l y the same for he says i n "Deutschland und die Deutschen," an essay of s p e c i a l relevance to Doktor Faustus, that he wanted to deal with Germany " r e i n psychologisch" i n order to discover "das Ratsel 1 im Charakter und Schicksal dieses Volkes. And i t i s through Adrian Leverkiihn, the symbol for Germany, and Razumov, the t y p i c a l Russian, that these q u a l i t i e s manifest themselves i n the two novels. Adrian's symbolic function i s made convincing through the method of "mythic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n.

Freud's "ar-chaic remnants" are for Jung "mental forms whose presence cannot be explained by anything i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s own l i f e and which seem a b o r i g i n a l , innate, 2 and i n h e r i t e d shapes of the human mind. By patterning himself on the Faust model, Adrian becomes an expression of Germany and, at another l e v e l , of the human mind i n general. Mann chose Faust as h i s mythic figure because he i s f o r him most representative of the German character. This i s underlined when he explains i n "Deutschland und die Deutschen": Und der T e u f e l , Luthers T e u f e l , Faustens T e u f e l , w i l l mir als eine sehr deutsche Figur erscheinen, das Biindnis mit ihm, die Teufelsverschreibung, um unter Drangabe des Seelenheils f i i r eine F r i s t a l l e Schatze und Macht der Welt zu gewinnen, als etwas dem deutschen Wesen eigentiimlich Naheliegendes.

Ei n einsamer Denker und Forscher, e i n Theolog und Philosoph in seiner Klause, der aus Verlangen nach Weltgenuss und Welt-herrschaft seine Seele dem T e u f e l v e r s c h r e i b t , — i s t es nicht ganz der rechte Augenblick, Deutschland i n diesem B i l d zu sehen, heute, wo Deutschland buchstSblich der T e u f e l hole? Indeed, i t i s astonishing j u s t how c l o s e l y Mann adheres to the p l o t of the 6 old chapbook Faust.

G u n i l l a Bergsten's Thomas Mann's Doctor Faustus de-monstrates conclusively the exact chronological correspondences between the chapbook and Doktor Faustus.

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But Adrian i s more than a simple reincarnation of the old myth. Since several characters i n German h i s t o r y , e s p e c i a l l y Beethoven, Wagner, Luther, and Nietzsche, were f o r Mann Faust reincarnations, Adrian emerges as the culmination of German i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y. Aside from the novel's agreement with the chapbook Faust, Adrian's l i n k with the Faust myth i s stressed by h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Faustian figures l i k e Beethoven and Luther, and by the way i n which his fate repeats incidents i n the l i f e of another Faust reincarnation: Nietzsche.

Moreover, Adrian's own father i s presented as a Faustian searcher.

Doctor Faustus Summary & Analysis (Marlowe) – Thug Notes

He i s described as a man 49 "besten deutschen Schlages" who has a "Physiognomie, wie gepragt von ver-gangenen Zeiten" p. Obsessed by forbidden speculations about the world, Jonathan Leverkiihn demonstrates that inorganic matter can look and act as i f i t were organic and thereby anticipates his son's later attempts to make art behave as i f i t were l i f e. The Faustian essence Adrian has inherited from his father is enhanced by the atmosphere of his native town Kaisersaschern, an "altstSdtische Umgebung Mann's use of "mythic identification," lending i t s e l f to a very complex structure of references and associations, thus produces a hero of rich and far-reaching symbolic significance.

Razumov i s not a symbol for his country in the same way that Adrian is for his.

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As a typical Russian, he both incorporates and is the victim of Russian qualities. Nevertheless, he identifies strongly with his country and draws a l l his strength from i t. Conrad informs us that, stripped of a l l family and social t i e s , Razumov's "closest parentage was defined in the , statement that he was a Russian" pp. This concurrence of man and country is further stressed when Razumov t e l l s Haldin: "You come from your province, but a l l this land is mine—or I have nothing" p. But the most emphatic expression of Razumov's consciousness as a Russian occurs when he exclaims to Peter Ivanovitch: "I don't want anyone to claim me.

But Russia can't disown me. She cannot. Significantly, this "I am i t " corresponds exactly to Mann's' characterization of mythic i d e n t i f i cation with Charlemagne, he says i n "Freud und die Zukunft": "Ich bin K a r l der Grosse. Adrian's conscious r e p e t i t i o n of the Faust myth i s heroic but Razumov's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with his country only serves t o r a t i o n a l i z e h i s personal, less than sublime motives. Conrad obviously wants t o expose the absurdity and i n a u t h e n t i c i t y of the Dostoevskian type of mysticism.

Russia i s depicted as unfathomable and mysterious; i t s po-l i t i c a l dilemma i s seen more i n terms of moral and i d e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y. Razumov never a r t i c u l a t e s the essence of Russia c l e a r l y but embraces i t through the land's p h y s i c a l presence: Razumov received an almost p h y s i c a l impression of endless space and of countless millions Under the sumptuous im-mensity of the sky, the snow covered the endless f o r e s t s , the frozen r i v e r s , the p l a i n s of an immense country, o b l i t -e r a t i ng the landmarks, the accidents of the ground, l e v e l -l i n g everything under i t s uniform whiteness, l i k e a mon-strous blank page awaiting the record of an inconceivable h i s t o r y p.

Like the Golfo Placido or the mountain Higuerota i n Nostromo, Russia i s ever-l a s t i n g , enduring i n d i f f e r e n c e. Having established the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the hero and h i s country i n Doktor Faustus and Under Western Eyes, i t i s now possible to analyze Adrian and Razumov i n d e t a i l. In the case of Doktor Faustus, i t i s necessary t o discuss what intentions Adrian Leverkuhn was to r e a l i z e f o r the author.

The novel points out that r e l i g i o u s and aesthetic attitudes anticipated Nazi ideology throughout h i s t o r y. This complex i n -tention required, of course, the technique of the Faust i d e n t i f i c a t i o n. However, since Mann f e l t that music was more t y p i c a l of the German character than science, Faust's t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e was inadequate. Through the Faust i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Adrian thus j o i n s Germany's past, present, and future.

The richest symbol f o r Adrian's l i f e and art i s the magic square which constantly dominates the w a l l above the piano. Incorporating both mathemat-i c a l l o g i c and enigmatic numerology, the magic square embodies Adrian's cold i n t e l l e c t and i n t o x i c a t i n g demonism. I d e a l l y , Adrian would l i k e to harmon-ize his. But he discovers not only that one of the two sides tends to dom-inate but also that a breakthrough i n art i s at t h i s time possible only with the dangerous and destructive help of the d e v i l. The f i r s t part of Doktor Faustus i s designed t o show how Adrian's e a r l y experiences and influences 5 2 teach him that, at c e r t a i n points i n h i s t o r y , the demonic becomes a neces-s i t y.

That Adrian has the p o t e n t i a l to achieve the balance represented by the magic square i s obvious from h i s b a s i c character t r a i t s. From e a r l i e s t youth he manifests excessive i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y and an equally excessive fas-cination with the demonic.

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Too i n t e l l i g e n t t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n school, he i s nevertheless curious about mathematics because of i t s concern with order and systems. The extent of t h i s c u r i o s i t y i s evident from the statement that "eine alberne Ordnung i s t immer noch besser als gar keine" p. The immediate re s u l t of t h i s exaggerated fascination with the abstract' and i n t e l -l e c t u a l i s Adrian's coldness.

This withdrawal from the world betrays a proud scorn f o r mankind and alienates the composer from the human community. Adrian i s w e l l aware of the negative implications of his need for distance: ". Lau mochte ic h mich nicht nennen; i c h b i n entschieden k a l t.

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But i n t e l l e c t u a l pride and emotional coldness are counterbalanced i n Adrian by a propensity for the demonic. We have seen already that he has i n h e r i t e d a Faustian character from h i s father. Aware of his demonic ten-dencies, Adrian laughs uncannily during h i s father's forbidden experiments and su f f e r s from h i s father's type of headache the moment he begins h i s own speculative work with music. The primary tension between Adrian's r a t i o n a l and i r r a t i o n a l sides i s c l e a r l y consonant with the image of the magic square.

Although the l o g i c a l and yet enigmatic nature of music corresponds to Adrian's temperament, he f i r s t turns t o theology. The novel offers several reasons for this choice. Adrian himself claims that he hoped a career i n theology would curb h i s pride and cure his coldness. But Zeitblom suspects 53 "dass er s e i n e r s e i t s seine Wahl aus HOchmut getroffen hatte" p.

In the end, Adrian him-s e l f subscribes to this explanation f o r i n h i s address at P f e i f f e r i n g he says: " Independent of Adrian's i n i t i a l motive, his studies at Halle c l e a r l y i n i t i a t e him i n t o the demonic. They are associated with d i f -ferent r e l i g i o u s periods i n Germany's h i s t o r y and o f f e r divergent attitudes to the demonic. Professor Kumpf i s an obvious parody of Luther.

He not only imitates Luther's language and gestures but he i s , l i k e his model, "mit dem T e u f e l auf sehr vertrautem, wenn auch n a t i i r l i c h gespanntem Fusse" p. Zeitblom characterizes t h i s attitude to the d e v i l as "gehassige R e a l i -tats-Anerkennung" p.

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  • Through Kumpf, Luther i s c l e a r l y seen to have anticipated Nazism i n two ways: l i k e H i t l e r , he disparaged reason and, through his separation from Rome, gave r i s e to nationalism, a concept which was to become c e n t r a l to H i t l e r ' s campaign. Adrian's encounter with Kumpf thus f a m i l i a r i z e s him with the idea of a ph y s i c a l d e v i l and re-emphasizes Adrian's p o s i t i o n between Germany's past and future. A more sophisticated exponent of demonism i s professor Schleppfuss, whose very name and p h y s i c a l appearance suggest the d e v i l.

    Schleppfuss' ad-vantage over the simple Kumpf i s that he explains his "dMmonische Welt- und Gottesauffassung psychologisch" p. But i n s p i t e of t h i s suggestion of modernism, his doctrines reach back to St. He argues that the d e v i l i s " e i n unvermeidliches ZubehSr der h e i l i g e n E x i stenz Gottes selbst" p. Schleppfuss consequently asserts that "die T a t i g k e i t der I n q u i s i t i o n von ruhrendster Humanitat beseelt gewesen s e i " p. Adrian resorts to a pact with the d e v i l because he cannot achieve the regeneration of art without demonic help.

    As a member of a decadent and sophisticated c i v i l i z a t i o n , Adrian lacks the elemental energy t o l i b e r a t e music from i t s exhausted conventions. Indeed, s t e r i l e art forms rule so supreme that Adrian r e a l i z e s that "auf fromrne, nuchterne Weis, mit rechten Dingen, kein Werk mehr zu tun und die Kunst unmoglich geworden i s t ohne T e u f e l s h i l f " p.

    The desired a r t i s t i c breakthrough i s possible only i f Adrian i s w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e soul and body to destructive powers. In t h i s way, Mann shows that, i n order t o regenerate dead art forms, the genius must in e v i t a b l y turn to forbidden and dangerous sources. Instead of leading to authentic expression, even his own experiments with conventional devices always result i n parodies of t r a d i t i o n -a l music.

    In despair, Adrian therefore wonders: "Warum imissen fast a l l e Dinge mir als ihre eigene Parodie erscheinen? Warum muss es mir vorkommen, als ob fast a l l e , nein, a l l e M i t t e l und Konvenienzen der Kunst heute nur noch 55 zur Parodie taugten? Parody, however, signals not only the end of old conventions i n a r t , but also the beginning of a search for new de-v i c e s. Adrian's penchant f o r parody therefore suggests that he i s strugg-l i n g f o r new ways of expression.

    But u n t i l the composition of "Dr.


    Fausti Weheklage," marking hi s a r t i s t i c breakthrough, Adrian i s confined t o parody, an art form the d e v i l characterizes as " a r i s t o k r a t i s c h e n Nihilismus" p. In order to do so, he f i r s t attempts to account for the sources of art's s t e r i l i t y. He i s f i r s t of a l l convinced that art i s at variance with modern r e a l i t y and asks himself But during the dialogue with the d e v i l , a second reason emerges. Speaking of the "UnpSsslichkeit, von der die Idee des musikalischen Werkes b e f a l l e n i s t , " the d e v i l argues: Schiebe s i e nicht auf g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e Zustande.

    Wahr, aber nebensMchlich. Die p r o h i b i t i v e n Schwierigkeiten des Werks liegen t i e f i n ihm selbs t. Die h i s t o r i s c h e Bewe-gung des musikalischen Materials hat sich gegen das geschlos-sene Werk gekehrt p. Music can regain i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y , and thereby escape from parody, only by transcending e x i s t i n g conventions. Kretschmar's discussion of Beethoven indicates that art's c y c l i c a l motion leads i n e v i t a b l y to a regeneration.

    Speaking of Beethoven's farewell to the sonata convention, Kretschmar ex-claims : 56 Horen Sie die stehengelassene Konvention? But every renewal of art i s d i f f e r e n t ; what li b e r a t e s Beethoven's music suffocates Adrian's. Beethoven's r e j e c t i o n of the sonata convention i n t r o -duces a new convention which i s i n i t s turn rejected by Adrian.

    Es hat den Ehrgeiz, glauben zu machen, dass es nicht ge-macht, sondern entstanden und entsprungen s e i. The romantic i l l u s i o n of the instantaneous and i n s p i r e d work of art i s no longer congruous with modern requirements. Music needs a new raison d'etre: "Schein und S p i e l haben heute senon das Gewissen der Kunst gegen s i c h. Beethoven's devices are now an obstacle t o authentic art whose new demands are summarized by the d e v i l as follows: "Zulassig i s t a l l e i n noch der nicht f i k t i v e , der nicht v e r s p i e l t e , der u n v e r s t e l l t e und unverklSrte Ausdruck des Leides i n seinem realen Augenblick" p.

    This means that art should be l i f e rather than t o remain i t s mirror. Symbolic representation must there-fore y i e l d to i m i t a t i v e form. In "Dr. Fausti Weheklage," Adrian ultimately achieves t h i s i m i t a t i v e form,for Zeitblom intimates that "die Klage i s t der Ausdruck s e l b s t " p. But "Dr. Fausti Weheklage" i s Adrian's l a s t work and before producing i t he has to divest himself slowly of art's burdensome a r t i f i c i a l i t y. Adrian even wonders whether modern c i v i l i z a t i o n deserves the name of " c u l t u r e " at a l l : 57 Ich mochte wissen, ob Epochen, die Kultur besassen, das Wort viberhaupt gekannt, gebraucht, itn Munde gefuhrt baben.

    Naivi-t3t, Unbewusstheit, SelbstverstSndlichkeit scheint roir das erste Kriterium der Verfassung, der wir diesen Namen geben. Was uns abgeht, i s t eben dies, Naivitat, und dieser Mangel, wenn man von einem solchen sprechen darf, schiitzt uns vor. Will sagen: unsere Stufe i s t die der Gesittung,-—ein sehr loberiswerter Zustand ohne Zweifel, aber keinem Zweifel unterliegt es auch wohl, dass wir sehr v i e l barbarischer werden mussten, um der Kul-tur wieder fShig zu sein p. And, since music is a product of this sophisticated but decadent c i v i l i z a -tion, i t too must return to i t s primitive sources.

    When Kretschmar intro-duces the strange American Johann Conrad Beissel, Adrian is immediately fas-cinated by the composer's primitive music. Beissel's music shows that art embraces the elemental and demonstrates that i t has the capacity always "von vorn zu beginnen, aus dem Nichts, bar jeder Kenntnis ihrer schon durchlau-fenen Kulturgeschichte, des durch die Jahrhunderte Errungenen, sich neu zu entdecken und wieder zu erzeugen" p.

    And Beissel's primitive system of "master" and "servant" notes corresponds undoubtedly to the "Idee des Ele-mentaren, des Primitiven, des Uranfanglichen" p. Adrian imitates the American's return to the sources of art with his own recourse to old texts. Especially fond of mythic subjects, he clearly models himself on Wagner, whose "Ring des Nibelungen" Kretschmar characterizes as "die Musik des An-fangs Adrian echoes Wagner further when he argues that only "Stoffe der romantischen Sage, der Mythenwelt des Mittelalters entnommen..

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    But the return to mythic materials is only a superficial immersion in the elemental. The true return can only be accomplished with the devil's help, for he alone can guarantee the "Lebenswirksamkeit" p. Through the demonic, Adrian w i l l experience "echte, aIte, urtQm l i c h e Begeisterung" and "prangende Unbedenklichkeit" p. Adrian thus succumbs to the d e v i l ' s temptation i n order to s t r i p himself of the accoutrements of c i v i l i z a t i o n and i t s decadent a r t.

    From h i s comments about K l e i s t ' s Marionettentheater, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t -ly evident that Adrian has no i l l u s i o n s about the p o s s i b i l i t y of recapturing l o s t s i m p l i c i t y : Dabei i s t nur von Aesthetischem die Rede, von der Anmut, der f r e i e n Grazie, die e i g e n t l i c h dem Gliedermann und dem Gotte, das h e i s s t dem Unbewusstsein oder einem unendlichen Bewusstsein vorbehalten i s t , wahrend jede zwischen N u l l und Unendlichkeit liegende Reflexion die Grazie t b t e t.

    Das Be-wusstsein miisse. Since Adrian i s neither God nor puppet, he must follow Adam's example. For him, spontaneity i s not attainable through primeval disorder but through the most r a t i o n a l and highly self-conscious musical system. The basic p r i n c i p l e of t h i s system i s "die vollstandige Integrierung a l l e r musikalischen Dimen-sionen, ihre Indifferenz gegeneinander k r a f t vollkommener Organisation" p.

    For Mann, the paradigm for a t o t a l l y r a t i o n a l music i s Schoenberg's twelve-tone system, on which Adrian's music theory i s based. Instead of t r i a d s , Adrian s t i p u l a t e s a row of twelve tones i n which no note may be r e -peated before the other eleven have been played.

    A tonal center i s avoided because no note i s emphasized through r e p e t i t i o n. Moreover, atonal s e r i a l music permits no free notes so that Zeitblom fears that the "rat i o n a l e Durch-organisation" might l i m i t creative freedom. Adrian argues, however, that the self-imposed order allows f o r an almost unlimited number of compositional 59 combinations.

    In order to demonstrate the richness of Adrian's theory, i t i s perhaps useful to quote a d e s c r i p t i o n of Schoenberg's s e r i a l music: While the tone-row technique may appear l i m i t e d at f i r s t glance, i t has been calculated that there are ,, d i f f e r e n t tone rows av a i l a b l e. And each row can be treated i n countless ways. The row can be trans-posed, or i t can be moved to a d i f f e r e n t octave. It can be subdivided i n t o phrases of d i f f e r e n t lengths. Fausti Weheklage" because "ver-moge der Restlosigkeit der Form eben wird die Musik als Sprache b e f r e i t " pp.

    But i n spite of the aesthetic triumph, Adrian's l i f e i s not an unequivocal success. Not only i s the composer p h y s i c a l l y and mentally destroyed, but h i s theories also form a close p a r a l l e l to disastrous p o l i t i c a l doctrines. However, be-fore the morality of Adrian's pact with the d e v i l can be analyzed, the nature of the p a r a l l e l between aesthetics and p o l i t i c s i n Doktor Faustus must f i r s t be established.

    The p a r a l l e l between Adrian and Nazi Germany manifests i t s e l f above a l l through the novel's p e c u l i a r time structure. Zeitblom describes the time levels i n Doktor Faustus as follows: Ich weiss n i c h t , warum diese doppelte Zeitrechnung meine Auf-merksamkeit f e s s e l t , und weshalb es mich drangt, auf s i e h i n -zuweisen: die persSnliche und die sachliche, die Z e i t i n der der Erzahler s i c h fortbewegt, und d i e , i n welcher das Erzahlte sich a b s p i e l t.

    Es i s t dies eine ganz eigentiiroliche VerschrMnk-ung der Z e i t l a u f t e , dazu bestimmt ubrigens, sich noch mit einem Drit t e n zu verbinden: nSmlich der Z e i t , die eines Tages der Leser s i c h zur geneigten Rezeption des M i t g e t e i l t e n nehmen wird, so dass dieser es also mit einer dreifachen Zeitordnung zu tun hat: seiner eigenen, derjenigen des Chronisten und der historischen p. The time structure r e i t e r a t e s Adrian's p o s i t i o n between Germany's past and 60 future.

    As we have seen already, Adrian is associated with the Reformation period and with the time of the Inquisition. And Adrian's choice of l i b r e t t i connects him with European literary history as far back as the medieval legends. The time structure obviously reinforces the fact that Adrian's music is the culmination of German cultural history. At the same time, Nazism is the f i n a l result of Germany's disastrous p o l i t i -cal course. The parallel between aesthetics and p o l i t i c s in Doktor Faustus now suggests that the paradoxical combination of the highest sophistication and the most primitive barbarism is the source of both Germany's cultural leadership and i t s p o l i t i c a l tragedy.

    The f i r s t dangerous p o l i t i c a l opinions are voiced during an excursion organized by the Winfried theology students at Halle. The students are pre-sented as young intellectuals who foretell the future without realizing the terrifying implications of their words. Fond of academic jargon, they mani-fest an intellectual distance from real l i f e and a careless pleasure in argument for i t s own sake. The students' basic innocence now contrasts strangely with the perverted content of their discussion. Equating Germany with youth, they proudly announce that "die deutschen Taten immer aus einer gewissen gewaltigen Uhreife [geschahen]" p.

    They see themselves as healthy rebuilders whose strength i s their immaturity. Obviously tired of Germany as i t i s , they long, like Adrian, for a regeneration which cannot be achieved through c i v i l i z a t i o n : Jung sein heisst ursprunglich sein, heisst den Que lien des Lebens nahe geblieben sein, heisst aufstehen und die Fessein einer Qberlebten Zivi l i s a t i o n abschutteln konnen, wagen, wo-zu anderen die Lebenscourage fehlt, nMmlich wieder unterzu-tauchen im Elementaren p. When faced with the a l t e r n a t i v e between soc i a l i s m and nationalism, the majority are deaf to the s o c i a l i s t ' s argument that the idea of "Deutschtum" might create a "Mythos von zweifelhafter Echtheit" which would put Germany in t o "eine entschieden damonisch bedrohte Position But they enthusi-a s t i c a l l y approve of Deutschlin obviously a symbolic name who counters: "Nun, und?

    Damonische Krafte stecken neben Ordnungsqualitaten i n jeder v i t a l e n Bewegung" p. The s i m i l a r i t y between Deutschlin's statement and Adrian's music theory i s , of course, immediately apparent.. And so, long before H i t l e r ' s usurpation of power, ideas favorable to h i s ascendancy are beginning to germinate. Chaim B r e i -sacher. With his "wittemde Fuhlung mit der geistigen Bewegung der Z e i t " p. Claiming that c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y i s "nichts als einen Verfallsprozess" p.

    Unopposed, he argues that the "Uebergang der Musik von der Monodie zur Mehrstimmigkeit, zur Harmonie, den man so gem als einen k u l t u r e l l e n F o r t s c h r i t t betrachte David and Solomon are already "ursprungsfremd und verdummt" p. Breisacher objects to this transformation on the following grounds: "Kurzum, Volk und Blut und r e l i g i o s e Wirklichkeit i s t das langst nicht mehr, sondern humane Wassersup-pe O r i g i n a l r e l i g i o u s v i t a l i t y i s , moreover, also weakened by 62 the new emphasis on ethics, another humanistic influence.

    Breisacher's glo-r i f i c a t i o n of the primitive is clearly reminiscent of Adrian's insistence on the elemental in music. The last significant p o l i t i c a l discussion takes place between the two World Wars. As Germany is hastening toward i t s catastrophic end, Adrian is working on his "Apocalypse. Zeitblom explains that he deals with the Kridwiss circle and the "Apocalypse" in the same chapter be-cause he feels strongly that the two subjects are really one.

    Since Krid-wiss intellectuals voice opinions Adrian had pronounced earlier, Zeitblom now sees "Aesthetizismus als Wegbereiter der Barbarei" p. Zeitblom is f i r s t of a l l disturbed by the Kridwiss members' "heiteren Genugtuung" p. But even more disquieting is that they suggest actual means for the realization of an "intehtionelle Re-Barbarisie-rung" p. Instead of parliamentary discussion, the Kridwiss circle posits "die Versorgung der Massen mit mythischen Fiktionen In order to prove the effectiveness of such myths, the intellectuals stage a fake t r i a l which demonstrates the helplessness of rational argument against the persuasiveness of myths.

    Reason i s , moreover, further undermined by the corruption of language. Words cherished by Western liberalism have taken on unintended meanings and are suddenly used in the service of despotism. Zeitblom summarizes the atmosphere in Munich by obser-ving despairingly: "Rttckschritt und Fortschritte, das Alte und Neue, Ver-gangenheit und Zukunft wurden eins" p. This atmosphere has of course been anticipated by Adrian some years before: Interessantere Lebenserscheinungen Sie zeigen die Zweideutigkeit des Lebens selbst p. Undoubtedly, Adrian's aesthetics are meant to parallel and perhaps prepare for German p o l i t i c a l opinions.

    But what are the moral implications of the parallel between aesthetics and politics? Frank Kermode's The Sense of an Ending gives us some perti-nent insight into this question. Differentiating between fic t i o n and myth, Kermode explains: "Fictions can degenerate into myths whenever they are not consciously held to be f i c t i v e.

    In this sense anti-Semitism is a degenerate 10 f i c t i o n , a myth; and Lear is a f i c t i o n. But i s the artist morally responsible for the fictions he exposes to mythic interpretation? Mann evidently wants to find some moral justification for Adrian. Toward the end of Doktor Faustus, Adrian becomes a mirror image of Christ.

    Like Christ, he takes the suffering of his time upon himself and dies as a martyr for the sake of art. Adrian's redemption is further sug-gested by the unusual and paradoxical salvation of his soul. This salvation is based on religious sophistries perpetrated by Schleppfuss. Volume 14 Issue 1 Jan , pp. Volume 13 Issue 1 Jan , pp. Volume 12 Issue 1 Jan , pp. Volume 11 Issue 1 Jan , pp. Volume 10 Issue 3 Jan , pp. Volume 9 Issue 1 Jan , pp. Volume 8 Issue 2 Jan , pp. Volume 7 Issue 3 Jan , pp. Volume 6 Issue 1 Jan , pp. Volume 5 Issue 3 Jan , pp.

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